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Using your in-kernel protocol implementation

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Using your userspace protocol implementation

As explained in How It Works, DCE needs to relocate the executable binary in memory, and these binary files need to be built with specific compile/link options.

In order to this you should follow the two following rules:

  1. Compile your objects using this gcc flag: -fPIC for exemple: gcc -fPIC -c foo.c
  1. (option) Some application needs to be compile with -U_FORTIFY_SOURCE so that the application doesn’t use alternative symbols including __chk (like memcpy_chk).
  1. Link your executable using this gcc flag: -pie and -rdynamic for exemple: gcc -o foo -pie -rdynamic foo.o
  2. Verify the produced executable using readelf utility in order to display the ELF file header and to verify that your exe is of type DYN indicating that DCE should be able to relocate and virtualize it under ns-3 virtual world and network. For exemple: readelf -h foo|grep Type: ==> Type: DYN (Shared object file)
  3. Check also that your executable runs as expected outside of ns-3 and DCE.

Install the target executable

Copy the executable file produced in a specified directory in the variable environment DCE_PATH so that DCE can find it. DCE_PATH behaves like the variable PATH and can contain several directories such as /home/USER/iproute2/ip:/home/USER/iperf3/src:/home/USER/iperf2/src

Write a ns-3 script

Now that you have compiled your executable you can use it within ns-3 script with the help of a set of DCE Helper Class:

HELPER CLASS NAME INCLUDE NAME DESCRIPTION
DceManagerHelper ns3/dce-manager-helper.h A DceManager is a DCE internal class which manage the execution of the executable you will declare to run within ns-3; The DceManagerHelper is the tool you will use within your script to parameter and install DceManager on the ns-3 nodes where you plan to run binaries.
DceApplicationHelper ns3/dce-application-helper.h

You will use this helper in order to define which application you want to run within ns-3 by setting the name of the binary its optionals arguments, its environment variables, and also optionally if it take its input from a file instead of stdin.

This class can be derived if you need to do more preparation before running your application. Often applications need configuration file to work properly, for example if you look at the contents of the helper named CcnClientHelper you will see that his job is to create the key files needed for the operation of CCNx’s applications.

LinuxStackHelper ns3/linux-stack-helper.h This helper is used to configure parameters of Linux kernel when we are using the advanced mode.
CcnClientHelper ns3/ccn-client-helper.h This helper is a subclass of DceApplicationHelper, its jobs is to create keys files used by ccnx executables in order to run them correctly within NS3.
QuaggaHelper ns3/quagga-helper.h This helper is a subclass of DceApplicationHelper. It will help you to setup Quagga applications.

Note that the table above indicates the name of includes, so you can look at the comments in them, but in reality for DCE use you need to include only the file ns3/dce-module.h.

The directory named myscripts is a good place to place your scripts. To create a new script you should create a new directory under myscripts, and put your sources and a configuration file for waf build system, this file should be named wscript. For starters, you may refer to the contents of the directory myscripts/ping.

For more detail, please refer DCE API (doxygen) document.

Compile the script

To compile simply execute the command waf. The result must be under the directory named build/bin/myscripts/foo/bar where foo is your directory and bar your executable according to the content of your wscript file.

Launch the script

Simply launch your script like any other program.

$ ./waf --run bar

Results

The execution of the apps using DCE generates special files which reflect the execution thereof. On each node DCE creates a directory /var/log, this directory will contain subdirectory whose name is a number. This number is the pid of a process. Each of these directories contains the following files cmdline, status, stdout, stderr. The file cmdline recalls the name of the executable run followed arguments. The file status contains an account of the execution and dating of the start; optionally if the execution is completed there is the date of the stop and the return code. The files stdout and stderr correspond to the standard output of the process in question.

Example: DCE Simple UDP (dce-udp-simple)

The example uses two POSIX socket-based application in a simulation. Please take time to look at the source dce-udp-simple.cc:

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#include "ns3/network-module.h"
#include "ns3/core-module.h"
#include "ns3/internet-module.h"
#include "ns3/dce-module.h"

using namespace ns3;

int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
  CommandLine cmd;
  cmd.Parse (argc, argv);

  NodeContainer nodes;
  nodes.Create (1);

  InternetStackHelper stack;
  stack.Install (nodes);

  DceManagerHelper dceManager;
  dceManager.Install (nodes);

  DceApplicationHelper dce;
  ApplicationContainer apps;

  dce.SetStackSize (1 << 20);

  dce.SetBinary ("udp-server");
  dce.ResetArguments ();
  apps = dce.Install (nodes.Get (0));
  apps.Start (Seconds (4.0));

  dce.SetBinary ("udp-client");
  dce.ResetArguments ();
  dce.AddArgument ("127.0.0.1");
  apps = dce.Install (nodes.Get (0));
  apps.Start (Seconds (4.5));

  Simulator::Stop (Seconds (1000100.0));
  Simulator::Run ();
  Simulator::Destroy ();

  return 0;
}

You can notice that we create a ns-3 Node with an Internet Stack (please refer to ns-3 doc. for more info), and we can also see 2 new Helpers:

  1. DceManagerHelper which is used to Manage DCE loading system in each node where DCE will be used.
  2. DceApplicationHelper which is used to describe real application to be launched by DCE within ns-3 simulation environment.

Example: DCE with iperf(dce-iperf)

The example uses iperf traffic generator in a simulation. The scenario is here:

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#include "ns3/network-module.h"
#include "ns3/core-module.h"
#include "ns3/internet-module.h"
#include "ns3/dce-module.h"
#include "ns3/point-to-point-module.h"
#include "ns3/applications-module.h"
#include "ns3/netanim-module.h"
#include "ns3/constant-position-mobility-model.h"
#include "ccnx/misc-tools.h"

using namespace ns3;
NS_LOG_COMPONENT_DEFINE ("DceIperf");
// ===========================================================================
//
//         node 0                 node 1
//   +----------------+    +----------------+
//   |                |    |                |
//   +----------------+    +----------------+
//   |    10.1.1.1    |    |    10.1.1.2    |
//   +----------------+    +----------------+
//   | point-to-point |    | point-to-point |
//   +----------------+    +----------------+
//           |                     |
//           +---------------------+
//                5 Mbps, 2 ms
//
// 2 nodes : iperf client en iperf server ....
//
// Note : Tested with iperf 2.0.5, you need to modify iperf source in order to
//        allow DCE to have a chance to end an endless loop in iperf as follow:
//        in source named Thread.c at line 412 in method named thread_rest
//        you must add a sleep (1); to break the infinite loop....
// ===========================================================================
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
  std::string stack = "ns3";
  bool useUdp = 0;
  std::string bandWidth = "1m";
  CommandLine cmd;
  cmd.AddValue ("stack", "Name of IP stack: ns3/linux/freebsd.", stack);
  cmd.AddValue ("udp", "Use UDP. Default false (0)", useUdp);
  cmd.AddValue ("bw", "BandWidth. Default 1m.", bandWidth);
  cmd.Parse (argc, argv);

  NodeContainer nodes;
  nodes.Create (2);

  PointToPointHelper pointToPoint;
  pointToPoint.SetDeviceAttribute ("DataRate", StringValue ("5Mbps"));
  pointToPoint.SetChannelAttribute ("Delay", StringValue ("1ms"));

  NetDeviceContainer devices, devices2;
  devices = pointToPoint.Install (nodes);
  devices2 = pointToPoint.Install (nodes);

  DceManagerHelper dceManager;
  dceManager.SetTaskManagerAttribute ("FiberManagerType", StringValue ("UcontextFiberManager"));

  if (stack == "ns3")
    {
      InternetStackHelper stack;
      stack.Install (nodes);
      dceManager.Install (nodes);
    }
  else if (stack == "linux")
    {
#ifdef KERNEL_STACK
      dceManager.SetNetworkStack ("ns3::LinuxSocketFdFactory", "Library", StringValue ("liblinux.so"));
      dceManager.Install (nodes);
      LinuxStackHelper stack;
      stack.Install (nodes);
#else
      NS_LOG_ERROR ("Linux kernel stack for DCE is not available. build with dce-linux module.");
      // silently exit
      return 0;
#endif
    }
  else if (stack == "freebsd")
    {
#ifdef KERNEL_STACK
      dceManager.SetNetworkStack ("ns3::FreeBSDSocketFdFactory", "Library", StringValue ("libfreebsd.so"));
      dceManager.Install (nodes);
      FreeBSDStackHelper stack;
      stack.Install (nodes);
#else
      NS_LOG_ERROR ("FreeBSD kernel stack for DCE is not available. build with dce-freebsd module.");
      // silently exit
      return 0;
#endif
    }

  Ipv4AddressHelper address;
  address.SetBase ("10.1.1.0", "255.255.255.252");
  Ipv4InterfaceContainer interfaces = address.Assign (devices);
  address.SetBase ("10.1.2.0", "255.255.255.252");
  interfaces = address.Assign (devices2);

  // setup ip routes
  Ipv4GlobalRoutingHelper::PopulateRoutingTables ();
#ifdef KERNEL_STACK
  if (stack == "linux")
    {
      LinuxStackHelper::PopulateRoutingTables ();
    }
#endif


  DceApplicationHelper dce;
  ApplicationContainer apps;

  dce.SetStackSize (1 << 20);

  // Launch iperf client on node 0
  dce.SetBinary ("iperf");
  dce.ResetArguments ();
  dce.ResetEnvironment ();
  dce.AddArgument ("-c");
  dce.AddArgument ("10.1.1.2");
  dce.AddArgument ("-i");
  dce.AddArgument ("1");
  dce.AddArgument ("--time");
  dce.AddArgument ("10");
  if (useUdp)
    {
      dce.AddArgument ("-u");
      dce.AddArgument ("-b");
      dce.AddArgument (bandWidth);
    }

  apps = dce.Install (nodes.Get (0));
  apps.Start (Seconds (0.7));
  apps.Stop (Seconds (20));

  // Launch iperf server on node 1
  dce.SetBinary ("iperf");
  dce.ResetArguments ();
  dce.ResetEnvironment ();
  dce.AddArgument ("-s");
  dce.AddArgument ("-P");
  dce.AddArgument ("1");
  if (useUdp)
    {
      dce.AddArgument ("-u");
    }

  apps = dce.Install (nodes.Get (1));

  pointToPoint.EnablePcapAll ("iperf-" + stack, false);

  apps.Start (Seconds (0.6));

  setPos (nodes.Get (0), 1, 10, 0);
  setPos (nodes.Get (1), 50,10, 0);

  Simulator::Stop (Seconds (40.0));
  Simulator::Run ();
  Simulator::Destroy ();

  return 0;
}

This scenario is simple there is 2 nodes linked by a point 2 point link, the node 0 launch iperf as a client via the command iperf -c 10.1.1.2 -i 1 –time 10 and the node 1 launch iperf as a server via the command iperf -s -P 1. You can follow this to launch the experiment: