NS-3 PyViz is a live simulation visualizer, meaning that it uses no trace files. It can be most useful for debugging purposes, i.e. to figure out if mobility models are what you expect, where packets are being dropped, etc. There's also a builtin interactive python console that can be used to debug the state of the running objects. Although it is mostly written in Python, it works both with Python and pure C++ simulations.
PyViz has been integrated into mainline ns-3, starting with version 3.10. For earlier ns-3 versions, it is found on a separate branch. There are multiple branches of PyViz, merged with different versions of NS-3:
- gjc/ns-3-pyviz: this branch is based on the old NS-3.2 version;
- gjc/ns-3.7-pyviz: this branch is based on NS-3.7
- gjc/ns-3.8-pyviz: this branch is based on NS-3.8
- gjc/ns-3.9-pyviz: this branch is based on NS-3.9
- gjc/ns-3-pyviz-dev: this branch is based on the current NS-3 development version, ns-3-dev.
You will have to select one of those branches, and merge it with your code.
You will need to have certain python modules installed. Following installation instructions (for Ubuntu):
sudo apt-get install python-dev python-pygraphviz python-kiwi python-pygoocanvas \ python-gnome2 python-gnomedesktop python-rsvg
Optionally, you may install Interactive Python in order to have a Console button in the visualizer GUI:
sudo apt-get install ipython
Configure and build your ns-3 tree as usual. WARNING: make sure NS-3 Python bindings are enabled; pyviz will not work without Python bindings!
You can test the visualizer for example with the FlowMonitor sample program:
./waf --pyrun examples/flowmon/wifi-olsr-flowmon.py
And the result should be:
Enabling the visualizer in your own simulation
For Python simulations, you have to import the visualizer module, and call visualizer.start() instead of ns3.Simulator.Run(). For example, like this.
For C++ simulations, #include "ns3/visualizer.h", and replace the call to Simulator::Run (); with Visualizer::Run ();. For example, like this.
The mouse controls work as follows:
- Middle button drag:
- Over a Node, drags the Node around (calls SetPosition on the mobility model of the node, beware the certain mobility models have bounds and crash if the bounds are not respected);
- Over the background: scroll the view;
- First button: select a Node, if over the node;
- Scroll wheel: zoom in/out
In the shell, a couple of variables are defined:
- 'viz': the visualizer python class, which has some useful methods;
- 'selected_node': the currently selected NS-3 node.
NS 3.8: PyViz does not detect WiMax transmissions due to a bug in WimaxNetDevice. This has been fixed in NS 3.9.
Before proceeding, be sure you know how to program in PyGTK. Depending on what you want to do, GooCanvas knowledge may also be required.
Python modules or packages appearing in contrib/visualizer/plugins/ are loaded automatically by pyviz as plugins. Each plugin module must define a register(viz) function, that is called as soon as the visualizer is initialized, passing the Visualizer class instance as sole argument.
The Visualizer class is a singleton that controls the whole visualizer GUI. It contains a list of nodes and channels, the canvas (goocanvas.Canvas), a list of arrows used to represent the packet transmissions, and assorted GUI elements, like the play/pause button.
Plugins typically connect to a set of "signals" (for more information about signals visit the pygtk documentation):
The populate-node-menu signal may be used to add options to the right-click popup menu of nodes:
# signal emitted whenever a right-click-on-node popup menu is being constructed 'populate-node-menu': (gobject.SIGNAL_RUN_LAST, None, (object, gtk.Menu,)),
simulation-periodic-update is called periodically as the simulation progresses:
# signal emitted after every simulation period (SAMPLE_PERIOD seconds of simulated time) # the simulation lock is acquired while the signal is emitted 'simulation-periodic-update': (gobject.SIGNAL_RUN_LAST, None, ()),
topology-scanned is called only once when the topology is scanned:
# signal emitted right after the topology is scanned 'topology-scanned': (gobject.SIGNAL_RUN_LAST, None, ()),
update-view is called periodically after the view is updated by pyviz, to allow plugins to add additional visualization elements:
# signal emitted when it's time to update the view objects 'update-view': (gobject.SIGNAL_RUN_LAST, None, ()),
There is class named InformationWindow. Plugins may create such a window to display some information regarding the simulation state. The programmer must subclass InformationWindow and implement the method update(), which will be called periodically as the simulation progresses, and which would typically extract simulation state information and present it in the window.