Difference between revisions of "Installation"

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== Supported platforms ==
 
== Supported platforms ==
  
ns-3 is primarily developed on GNU/Linux platforms, and the minimal requirements to run basic simulations are a [http://gcc.gnu.org/ gcc] or [http://clang.llvm.org/ clang] compiler and [http://www-python.org/ Python] interpreter (details on versions below).
+
ns-3 is primarily developed on GNU/Linux and macOS platforms, and the minimal requirements to run basic simulations are a C++ compiler; either [http://gcc.gnu.org/ g++] or [http://clang.llvm.org/ clang++] compiler, and [http://www-python.org/ Python (version 3)] interpreter.  The below instructions are per-platform instructions for supplemental packages that enable optional features of ns-3 or companion tools.
  
 
=== Operating system and compiler support ===
 
=== Operating system and compiler support ===
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ns-3 is supported and currently tested on the following primary platforms:
 
ns-3 is supported and currently tested on the following primary platforms:
  
# Linux (x86 and x86_64): gcc/g++ versions 4.9 and above
+
# Linux (x86 and x86_64): gcc/g++ versions 7 and above
# macOS Apple LLVM:  version 8.0.0 and above (version 7.0.0 may work)
+
## '''Note:''' If you are using RHEL or Centos, you will likely need to install a more up-to-date compiler than the default; search for how to enable 'software collections' or 'devtoolset' on these distributions.  Other Linux distributions typically have a suitable default compiler (at least version 4.9).
# FreeBSD and Linux (x86_64):  clang/LLVM version 3.9 and above (older versions down to 3.3 may work)
+
# MacOS Apple LLVM:  version 11.0.0 and above
 +
# FreeBSD and Linux (x86_64):  clang/LLVM version 8 and later
  
The minimum Python version supported is 2.7 or greater (version 2), or version 3.4 or greater (version 3).
+
The minimum Python version supported is currently version 3.6 or greater (major version 3).
  
By supported, we mean that the project tries to support most or all of the build options on these platforms unless there is a good reason to exclude the option; and at least the debug build will compile.  If you intend to do serious work using ns-3, and are forced by circumstances to use a Windows platform, consider virtualization of a popular Linux platform or using [http://www.ubuntu.com/download/desktop/windows-installer Ubuntu with wubi].  In both cases you end up with a fully functional Linux system and ns-3 distribution.
+
By supported, we mean that the project tries to support most or all of the build options on these platforms unless there is a good reason to exclude the option; and at least the debug build will compile.  If you intend to do serious work using ns-3, and are forced by circumstances to use a Windows platform, consider virtualization of a popular Linux platform or using [https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/commandline/wsl/install_guide Windows Subsystem for Linux].   
  
The following platforms are lightly supported:
+
Some aspects of ns-3 depend on Unix (or specifically Linux) support, such as the emulation or TapBridge features, and those components are not enabled on the Windows or MacOS versions cited above.
* Windows Visual Studio 2012 (presently being upgraded)
+
* Windows Cygwin 1.7 (not recently tested)
+
 
+
Some aspects of ns-3 depend on Unix (or specifically Linux) support, such as the emulation or TapBridge features, and those components are not enabled on the Windows versions cited above.
+
  
 
Additional maintainers are invited to make more platforms, compilers and environments supported.
 
Additional maintainers are invited to make more platforms, compilers and environments supported.
Line 54: Line 51:
 
Network Simulation Cradle    : not enabled (architecture None not supported)
 
Network Simulation Cradle    : not enabled (architecture None not supported)
 
MPI Support                  : not enabled (option --enable-mpi not selected)
 
MPI Support                  : not enabled (option --enable-mpi not selected)
NS-3 OpenFlow Integration    : not enabled (Required boost libraries not found)
+
NS-3 OpenFlow Integration    : not enabled (OpenFlow not enabled (see option --with-openflow))
 
SQlite stats data output      : not enabled (library 'sqlite3' not found)
 
SQlite stats data output      : not enabled (library 'sqlite3' not found)
 
Tap Bridge                    : not enabled (<linux/if_tun.h> include not detected)
 
Tap Bridge                    : not enabled (<linux/if_tun.h> include not detected)
Line 104: Line 101:
  
 
# NSC works best with gcc-3.4 or gcc-4.2 or greater series.  Try to avoid using gcc-4.0 and gcc-4.1 series; some build problems have been found with these versions of compilers.
 
# NSC works best with gcc-3.4 or gcc-4.2 or greater series.  Try to avoid using gcc-4.0 and gcc-4.1 series; some build problems have been found with these versions of compilers.
 +
 +
=== Using older version of ns-3 on newer systems ===
 +
 +
It can be the case that trying to use an old version of ns-3 on a newer system can lead to warnings or errors because the compilers have become more strict over time.  The below wiki page has some suggestions to work around this.
 +
 +
https://www.nsnam.org/wiki/HOWTO_build_old_versions_of_ns-3_on_newer_compilers
 +
 +
=== Using newer version of ns-3 on older systems ===
 +
 +
Conversely, it can be the case that a user has an old version of Linux but newer compilers and libraries are needed to run the latest versions of ns-3.  This blog has some recommendations on how to use chroot jails to work around this:
 +
 +
https://www.projectguideline.com/installing-ns3-35-in-debian-10-chroot-jail-under-debian-11-host-os-or-any-version-of-linux-host/
  
 
== Prerequisites ==
 
== Prerequisites ==
  
The core of ns-3 requires a gcc/g++ installation of 4.9 or greater (Linux), or a recent version of clang compiler (OS X, Linux, or BSD), and Python 2.7 or greater. As mentioned above, different options require additional support.  This is a list of packages (for Debian/Ubuntu systems) that are needed to support different ns-3 options.  Note that other distributions (e.g., Fedora, FreeBSD) may have different package names or capitalization (e.g. ImageMagik).  Installation should be similar for Red Hat/Fedora based systems, with "yum" replacing "apt-get", but some differences exist, so below is a guide for both Ubuntu (should generally apply to Debian) and Fedora/RedHat-based systems:
+
The core of ns-3 requires a gcc/g++ installation of 4.9 or greater (Linux), or a recent version of clang compiler (OS X, Linux, or BSD), and Python 3.5 or greater. As mentioned above, different options require additional support.  This is a list of packages (for Debian/Ubuntu systems) that are needed to support different ns-3 options.  Note that other distributions (e.g., Fedora, FreeBSD) may have different package names or capitalization (e.g. ImageMagik).  Installation should be similar for Red Hat/Fedora based systems, with "yum" replacing "apt-get", but some differences exist, so below is a guide for both Ubuntu (should generally apply to Debian) and Fedora/RedHat-based systems:
  
 
=== Linux ===
 
=== Linux ===
Line 119: Line 128:
 
* '''minimal requirements for C++ (release):'''  This is the minimal set of packages needed to run ns-3 C++ programs from a released tarball.
 
* '''minimal requirements for C++ (release):'''  This is the minimal set of packages needed to run ns-3 C++ programs from a released tarball.
  
   yum install gcc-c++ python
+
   yum install gcc-c++ python3
  
 
* '''minimal requirements for Python (release):'''  Python development headers are necessary to enable the Python bindings (for writing ns-3 programs from Python):
 
* '''minimal requirements for Python (release):'''  Python development headers are necessary to enable the Python bindings (for writing ns-3 programs from Python):
  
   yum install python-devel
+
   yum install python3-devel
  
 
The following additional packages add functionality to the build or documentation.
 
The following additional packages add functionality to the build or documentation.
  
* The netanim animator requires Qt4 development packages (note:  qt4, not the newer qt5):
+
* The netanim animator requires Qt5 development packages:
  
   yum install qt4-devel
+
   yum install qt5-devel
  
 
* Mercurial is needed to work with ns-3 development repositories.
 
* Mercurial is needed to work with ns-3 development repositories.
  
 
   yum install mercurial
 
   yum install mercurial
 
* Bazaar is needed to fetch the development version of the pybindgen bindings generation tool. 
 
 
  yum install bzr
 
 
* Support for generating modified python bindings
 
 
  yum install cmake glibc-devel.i686 glibc-devel.x86_64
 
 
and you will want to install gccxml and pygccxml as per the instructions for python bindings (or through the ''bake'' build tool as described in the tutorial).
 
  
 
* Doxygen and related inline documentation:
 
* Doxygen and related inline documentation:
Line 150: Line 149:
 
* The ns-3 manual and tutorial are written in reStructuredText for Sphinx (doc/tutorial, doc/manual, doc/models), and figures typically in dia:
 
* The ns-3 manual and tutorial are written in reStructuredText for Sphinx (doc/tutorial, doc/manual, doc/models), and figures typically in dia:
  
   yum install python-sphinx dia texlive texlive-latex
+
   yum install python3-sphinx dia texlive texlive-latex
  
 
* MPI-based parallel, distributed simulation support requires openmpi:
 
* MPI-based parallel, distributed simulation support requires openmpi:
Line 172: Line 171:
 
   yum install uncrustify
 
   yum install uncrustify
  
* Support for openflowswitch requires some Boost libraries
+
* Support for openflowswitch requires libxml2, if not installed above, and Boost libraries
  
   yum install boost-devel
+
   yum install libxml2 libxml2-devel boost-devel
  
 
* Support for ns-3-pyviz visualizer
 
* Support for ns-3-pyviz visualizer
Line 180: Line 179:
 
This is a bit more involved due to lack of package support in the standard repositories.
 
This is a bit more involved due to lack of package support in the standard repositories.
  
   yum install graphviz graphviz-devel python-setuptools-devel ipython
+
   yum install graphviz graphviz-devel python3-setuptools-devel ipython3
 
   sudo easy_install pygraphviz
 
   sudo easy_install pygraphviz
  
Line 215: Line 214:
  
 
   yum install gdb valgrind
 
   yum install gdb valgrind
 +
[[#Installation| <span class="mw-ui-button mw-ui-progressive"  style ="margin:.1em">Jump to installation</span>]]
  
==== Ubuntu/Debian ====
+
==== Ubuntu/Debian/Mint ====
  
The following list of packages should be accurate for Ubuntu 16.04 release; other releases or other Debian-based systems may slightly vary.
+
The following list of packages should be accurate through the Ubuntu 21.04 release; other releases or other Debian-based systems may slightly vary.  Ubuntu 16.04 LTS release is probably the oldest release that is known to work with the most recent ns-3 releases.
  
'''Note:''' Ubuntu 14.04 LTS release requires upgrade to gcc-4.9 from default gcc-4.8The instructions at this link: http://askubuntu.com/questions/466651/how-do-i-use-the-latest-gcc-on-ubuntu?answertab=votes#tab-top have been found to work.
+
'''Note:''' As of ns-3.30 release (August 2019), ns-3 uses Python 3 by default, but earlier releases depend on Python 2 packages, and at least a Python 2 interpreter is recommendedIf working with an earlier release, one may in general substitute 'python' for 'python3' in the below (e.g. install 'python-dev' instead of 'python3-dev').
  
* '''minimal requirements for C++ (release):'''  This is the minimal set of packages needed to run ns-3 from a released tarball.
+
* '''minimal requirements for C++ users (release 3.35 and earlier):'''  This is the minimal set of packages needed to run ns-3 from a released tarball.
  
   apt-get install gcc g++ python
+
   apt install g++ python3
  
* '''minimal requirements for Python (release):''' This is the minimal set of packages needed to work with Python bindings from a released tarball.
+
* '''minimal requirements for C++ users (release 3.36 and development):''' For ns-3-dev and ns-3.36 (and later) releases, CMake is also needed.
  
   apt-get install gcc g++ python python-dev
+
   apt install g++ python3 cmake
  
* '''minimal requirements for Python (development):''' For use of ns-3-allinone repository (cloned from Mercurial), additional packages are needed to fetch and successfully install pybindgen:
+
* '''minimal requirements for Python API users (release 3.30 and newer, and ns-3-dev):''' This is the minimal set of packages needed to work with Python bindings from a released tarball.
  
   apt-get install mercurial python-setuptools git
+
   apt install g++ python3 python3-dev pkg-config sqlite3 cmake
  
* '''Python API scanning support:''' cmake libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 g++-multilib
+
* '''additional minimal requirements for Python (development):''' For use of ns-3-allinone repository (cloned from Git), additional packages are needed to fetch and successfully install pybindgen and netanim.
** To rescan Python bindings requires gccxml and pygccxml, which are installed by bake.  However, for Ubuntu 16.04, gccxml will not build without a patch and a build flag described here:  https://www.nsnam.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=2451
+
  
 +
  apt install python3-setuptools git
  
* qt4 development tools are needed for Netanim animator ('''Note:''' qt version qt4, not qt5, is required)
+
* '''Netanim animator:''' qt5 development tools are needed for Netanim animator; qt4 will also work but we have migrated to qt5.
  
   apt-get install qt4-dev-tools libqt4-dev
+
   apt install qtbase5-dev qtchooser qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev-tools
  
* Support for generating modified python bindings
+
'''Note:''' For Ubuntu 20.10 and earlier, the single 'qt5-default' package suffices
  
   apt-get install cmake libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 g++-multilib
+
   apt install qt5-default
  
and you will want to install gccxml and pygccxml as per the instructions for python bindings (or through the ''bake'' build tool as described in the tutorial).
+
* Support for ns-3-pyviz visualizer
 +
 
 +
** For Ubuntu 18.04 and later, python-pygoocanvas is no longer provided.  The ns-3.29 release and later upgrades the support to GTK+ version 3, and requires these packages:
 +
 
 +
  apt install gir1.2-goocanvas-2.0 python3-gi python3-gi-cairo python3-pygraphviz gir1.2-gtk-3.0 ipython3 
 +
 
 +
** For ns-3.28 and earlier releases, PyViz is based on GTK+ 2, GooCanvas, and GraphViz:
 +
 
 +
  apt install python-pygraphviz python-kiwi python-pygoocanvas libgoocanvas-dev ipython
 +
 
 +
* Support for MPI-based distributed emulation
 +
 +
apt install openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev
 +
 
 +
* Support for bake build tool:
 +
 
 +
  apt install autoconf cvs bzr unrar
  
 
* Debugging:
 
* Debugging:
  
   apt-get install gdb valgrind  
+
   apt install gdb valgrind  
 +
 
 +
* Support for utils/check-style.py code style check program
 +
 
 +
apt install uncrustify
 +
 
 +
* Doxygen and related inline documentation:
 +
*:
 +
  apt install doxygen graphviz imagemagick
 +
  apt install texlive texlive-extra-utils texlive-latex-extra texlive-font-utils dvipng latexmk
 +
*:
 +
** If you get an error such as 'convert ... not authorized source-temp/figures/lena-dual-stripe.eps', see this post about editing ImageMagick's security policy configuration: https://cromwell-intl.com/open-source/pdf-not-authorized.html.  In brief, you will want to make this kind of change to ImageMagick security policy:
  
* GNU Scientific Library (GSL) support for more accurate WiFi error models
+
    --- ImageMagick-6/policy.xml.bak 2020-04-28 21:10:08.564613444 -0700
 
+
    +++ ImageMagick-6/policy.xml 2020-04-28 21:10:29.413438798 -0700
  apt-get install gsl-bin libgsl2 libgsl-dev
+
    @@ -87,10 +87,10 @@
 +
      <!-- in order to avoid to get image with password text -->
 +
      <policy domain="path" rights="none" pattern="@*"/>
 +
      <!-- disable ghostscript format types -->
 +
    -  <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="PS" />
 +
    +  <policy domain="coder" rights="read|write" pattern="PS" />
 +
      <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="PS2" />
 +
      <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="PS3" />
 +
      <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="EPS" />
 +
    -  <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="PDF" />
 +
    +  <policy domain="coder" rights="read|write" pattern="PDF" />
 +
      <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="XPS" />
 +
    </policymap>
  
* The Network Simulation Cradle (nsc) requires the flex lexical analyzer and bison parser generator:
 
  
   apt-get install flex bison libfl-dev
+
* The ns-3 manual and tutorial are written in reStructuredText for Sphinx (doc/tutorial, doc/manual, doc/models), and figures typically in dia (also needs the texlive packages above):
 +
 
 +
   apt install python3-sphinx dia
 +
 
 +
'''Note:''' Sphinx version >= 1.12 required for ns-3.15.  To check your version, type "sphinx-build".  To fetch this package alone, outside of the Ubuntu package system, try "sudo easy_install -U Sphinx".
 +
 
 +
* GNU Scientific Library (GSL) support for more accurate 802.11b WiFi error models (not needed for OFDM):
 +
 
 +
  apt install gsl-bin libgsl-dev libgslcblas0
 +
 
 +
If the above doesn't work (doesn't detect GSL on the system), consult: https://coral.ise.lehigh.edu/jild13/2016/07/11/hello/.  But don't worry if you are not using 802.11b models.
  
 
* To read pcap packet traces
 
* To read pcap packet traces
 
   
 
   
  apt-get install tcpdump
+
  apt install tcpdump
  
 
* Database support for statistics framework
 
* Database support for statistics framework
  
  apt-get install sqlite sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev
+
  apt install sqlite sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev
  
 
* Xml-based version of the config store (requires libxml2 >= version 2.7)
 
* Xml-based version of the config store (requires libxml2 >= version 2.7)
  
  apt-get install libxml2 libxml2-dev
+
  apt install libxml2 libxml2-dev
 +
 
 +
* Support for generating modified python bindings
 +
 
 +
  apt install cmake libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 libclang-dev llvm-dev automake python3-pip
 +
  python3 -m pip install --user cxxfilt
 +
 
 +
and you will want to install castxml and pygccxml as per the instructions for python bindings (or through the ''bake'' build tool as described in the tutorial).  The 'castxml' and 'pygccxml' packages provided by Ubuntu 18.04 and earlier are not recommended; a source build (coordinated via bake) is recommended.  If you plan to work with bindings or rescan them for any ns-3 C++ changes you might make, please read the [https://www.nsnam.org/docs/manual/html/python.html chapter in the manual] on this topic.
 +
 
 +
'''Note:''' Ubuntu versions (through 19.04) and systems based on it (e.g. Linux Mint 18) default to an old version of clang and llvm (3.8), when simply 'libclang-dev' and 'llvm-dev' are specified.    The packaging on these 3.8 versions is broken.  Users of Ubuntu will want to explicitly install a newer version by specifying 'libclang-6.0-dev' and 'llvm-6.0-dev'.  Other versions newer than 6.0 may work (not tested).
  
 
* A GTK-based configuration system
 
* A GTK-based configuration system
  
   apt-get install libgtk2.0-0 libgtk2.0-dev
+
   apt install libgtk-3-dev
  
 
* To experiment with virtual machines and ns-3
 
* To experiment with virtual machines and ns-3
  
   apt-get install vtun lxc
+
   apt install vtun lxc uml-utilities
  
* Support for utils/check-style.py code style check program
+
* Support for openflow module (requires libxml2-dev if not installed above) and Boost development libraries
 +
 
 +
apt install libxml2 libxml2-dev libboost-all-dev
  
apt-get install uncrustify
+
[[#Installation| <span class="mw-ui-button mw-ui-progressive"  style ="margin:.1em">Jump to installation</span>]]
  
* Doxygen and related inline documentation:
+
==== Fedora/RedHat ====
  
   apt-get install doxygen graphviz imagemagick
+
The following list of packages should be aligned with recent Fedora releases; other releases may slightly vary.   Note that these distributions sometimes change the package structure over time.
  apt-get install texlive texlive-extra-utils texlive-latex-extra texlive-font-utils texlive-lang-portuguese dvipng
+
  
* The ns-3 manual and tutorial are written in reStructuredText for Sphinx (doc/tutorial, doc/manual, doc/models), and figures typically in dia (also needs the texlive packages above):
+
'''Important''':  If you are using RedHat or CentOS, either versions 6 or 7, the default compilers are too old to build recent ns-3 releases.  You must upgrade gcc and g++ to a more recent version.  See below.
  
  apt-get install python-sphinx dia
+
<u>Fedora and virtual machines</u>
  
'''Note:''' Sphinx version >= 1.12 required for ns-3.15To check your version, type "sphinx-build"To fetch this package alone, outside of the Ubuntu package system, try "sudo easy_install -U Sphinx".
+
The Waf build system can use several GB of space on /tmp when building ns-3.  Fedora and RedHat have chosen to mount /tmp on tmpfs, sized at half of the RAM by defaultOn a virtual machine, where possibly as little as 4GB of RAM may be configured, this will lead to a 2GB /tmp partition and the ns-3 build will fail with a message such as:
  
* Support for Gustavo Carneiro's ns-3-pyviz visualizer
+
  src/internet/bindings/ns3module.cc:148895:1: fatal error: error writing to /tmp/ccvdnttM.s: No space left on device
  
  apt-get install python-pygraphviz python-kiwi python-pygoocanvas libgoocanvas-dev ipython
+
One workaround is to increase your tmpfs size, such as (as root user):
  
* Support for openflow module (requires some boost libraries)
+
   # mount -o remount,size=4G,noatime /tmp/
    
+
apt-get install libboost-signals-dev libboost-filesystem-dev
+
  
* Support for MPI-based distributed emulation
+
This resizing must be done upon each reboot, and you should ensure that you have a swap partition also configured.
+
apt-get install openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev
+
  
==== Fedora/RedHat ====
+
<u>Release-specific issues</u>
  
The following list of packages should be aligned with recent Fedora releases; other releases may slightly vary.  Note that these distributions sometimes change the package structure over time.
+
* We do not support RHEL 6 or CentOS 6 anymore; nor do we support older versions of Fedora such as less than Fedora 30.
  
* '''minimal requirements for C++ (release):'''  This is the minimal set of packages needed to run ns-3 from a released tarball.
+
* RHEL 7 (and CentOS 7) use an older version of gcc (4.8.5) that is no longer compatible with ns-3 releases.  An upgrade of gcc is needed; see these instructions on installing a devtoolset (such as devtoolset-7) if you need to upgrade:  http://blog.stevedoria.net/20180214/how-to-install-gcc-7-on-centos-7
  
  dnf install gcc gcc-c++ python
+
<u>Required and optional packages</u>
  
* '''Note:'''  If you are using CentOS 5.4 or RHEL 5, you may want to also get and use the gcc44 packages; see the [[Troubleshooting]] page.
+
* '''minimal requirements for C++ (release):'''  This is the minimal set of packages needed to run most of ns-3's C++ programs from a released tarball.
  
* '''minimal requirements for Python (release):''' This is the minimal set of packages needed to work with Python bindings from a released tarball.
+
  dnf install gcc-c++ python3
  
  dnf install gcc gcc-c++ python python-devel
+
* '''minimal requirements for Python (release):''' This is the minimal set of packages needed to use Python bindings from a released tarball.
  
* Mercurial is needed to work with ns-3 development repositories.
+
  dnf install gcc-c++ python3 python3-devel
  
  dnf install mercurial
+
* Git is needed to work with ns-3 development repositories.
  
* Running python bindings from the ns-3 development tree (ns-3-dev) requires bazaar. You may need EPEL repository for this.
+
   dnf install git
 
+
   dnf install bzr
+
  
 
* An optional but recommended package (for improving some wireless model fidelity) is GNU scientific library:
 
* An optional but recommended package (for improving some wireless model fidelity) is GNU scientific library:
  
 
   dnf install gsl gsl-devel
 
   dnf install gsl gsl-devel
 +
 +
* Support for netanim animator:
 +
 +
  dnf install qt5-devel
  
 
* A GTK-based configuration system
 
* A GTK-based configuration system
 +
 +
<u>Prior to ns-3.29, use GTK+ version 2:</u>
  
 
   dnf install gtk2 gtk2-devel
 
   dnf install gtk2 gtk2-devel
 +
 +
<u>Starting with ns-3.29, use GTK+ version 3:</u>
 +
 +
  dnf install gtk3 gtk3-devel
  
 
* Debugging:
 
* Debugging:
Line 347: Line 409:
 
* The ns-3 manual and tutorial are written in reStructuredText for Sphinx (doc/tutorial, doc/manual, doc/models), and figures typically in dia:
 
* The ns-3 manual and tutorial are written in reStructuredText for Sphinx (doc/tutorial, doc/manual, doc/models), and figures typically in dia:
  
   dnf install python-sphinx dia texlive texlive-latex
+
   dnf install python3-sphinx dia texlive texlive-latex texlive-fncychap texlive-capt-of texlive-tabulary texlive-eqparbox
 
+
  dnf install texlive-epstopdf texlive-titlesec texlive-framed texlive-dvipng texlive-threeparttable texlive-wrapfig
'''Note:''' Sphinx version >= 1.12 required for ns-3.15.  To check your version, type "sphinx-build".  To fetch this package alone, outside of the Fedora package system, try "sudo easy_install -U Sphinx"
+
   dnf install texlive-multirow ImageMagick
 
+
* The Network Simulation Cradle (nsc) requires the flex lexical analyzer and bison parser generator; note, this requires older compiler support (gcc-4 series):
+
 
+
   dnf install flex bison
+
  
 
* To read pcap packet traces
 
* To read pcap packet traces
Line 373: Line 431:
 
* Support for MPI distributed simulations
 
* Support for MPI distributed simulations
 
   
 
   
   dnf install openmpi openmpi-devel
+
   dnf install openmpi openmpi-devel environment-modules
  
* Support for openflowswitch
+
Steve Smith notes that the shell must be restarted after environment-modules package is installed, since environment-modules modifies the bash initialization scripts to enable the module command.  Then, to find the programs mpic++ and mpiexec, one must do:
  
  dnf install boost-devel
+
$ module load mpi/openmpi-x86_64
  
* Support for ns-3-pyviz visualizer
+
and then the commands should be found by the shell:
  
  dnf install redhat-rpm-config goocanvas-devel graphviz graphviz-devel python-setuptools python-kiwi pygoocanvas ipython
+
$ which mpic++ mpiexec
  easy_install pygraphviz
+
  
* Support for netanim animator:
+
Steve Smith also noted problems with Fedora machines that do not have APX support, such as virtual machines: https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-dev/-/issues/397
  
  dnf install qt4-devel
+
Solution for those machines is to switch to mpich:
  
* Support for generating modified python bindings
+
$ dnf install mpich mpich-devel environment-modules
 +
$ module load mpi/mpich-x86_64
  
  dnf install cmake glibc-devel.i686 glibc-devel.x86_64
+
* Support for openflowswitch requires libxml2, if not installed above, and Boost development libraries
  
and you will want to install gccxml and pygccxml as per the instructions for python bindings (or through the ''bake'' build tool as described in the tutorial).
+
  dnf install libxml2 libxml2-devel boost-devel
  
* Support for bake tool:
+
* Support for ns-3-pyviz visualizer (ns-3.28 release and earlier)
  
   dnf install patch autoconf cvs
+
   dnf install redhat-rpm-config goocanvas-devel graphviz graphviz-devel python-setuptools python-kiwi pygoocanvas ipython
 +
  easy_install pygraphviz
  
==== Gentoo ====
+
* Support for ns-3 pyviz visualizer (ns-3.29 release and later)
  
The following list of packages should be accurate for Gentoo as of 04/22/2010; due to possible changes in USE-flags or package names the list may slightly vary.
+
  pygobject3-devel python3-gobject gobject-introspection-devel goocanvas2-devel graphviz-devel graphviz ipython
First of all, become root as usual.
+
  easy_install pygraphviz
  
* '''minimal requirements for C++ or Python (release):'''  This is the minimal set of packages needed to run ns-3 or to work with Python bindings from a released tarball.
+
* Support for generating modified python bindings
  
   USE="threads -nocxx nptl" emerge -uavN gcc python
+
   dnf install cmake clang-devel llvm-devel llvm-static
 +
  pip3 install --user cxxfilt
  
* Mercurial is needed to work with ns-3 development repositories.
+
and you will want to install castxml and pygccxml as per the instructions for python bindings (or through the ''bake'' build tool as described in the tutorial).  If you plan to work with bindings or rescan them for any ns-3 C++ changes you might make, please read the [https://www.nsnam.org/docs/manual/html/python.html chapter in the manual] on this topic.
  
  emerge -av --noreplace mercurial
+
* Support for bake tool:
  
* Running python bindings from the ns-3 development tree (ns-3-dev) requires bazaar
+
  dnf install make patch autoconf cvs
 +
[[#Installation| <span class="mw-ui-button mw-ui-progressive"  style ="margin:.1em">Jump to installation</span>]]
  
  USE="curl" emerge -uavN bzr
+
=== macOS ===
  
* A GTK-based configuration system
+
macOS installation of ns-3 relies on the Xcode command line tools provided by Apple, and the clang/llvm compiler used therein.  A third-party package manager such as [https://brew.sh Homebrew] can be used for optional extensions to ns-3 such as libxml2.
  
  emerge -av --noreplace gtk+:2
+
The current version of macOS is 'Catalina' (10.15) and the version of Xcode is 11.2, as of this writing. 
  
* Debugging:
+
If you are having problems with ns-3.29 and macOS, please look at the [[Errata]] page for some hints, or consider to use the development version (ns-3-dev) of ns-3 which should work now.  ns-3.30 is not know to have macOS issues.
  
  emerge -av --noreplace gdb valgrind
+
The main steps to follow to prepare your macOS machine for a base ns-3 install (Xcode tools, and Python) are as follows:
  
* Doxygen and related inline documentation; also ns-3 manual and tutorial (written in Texinfo):
+
# Download and install Xcode Command Line Tools (most recently tested version 11.2) from the App Store, or the full Xcode.
 +
## If you installed full Xcode, you still need to type `xcode-select --install` to obtain the command line tools.
 +
## You will also have to agree to Apple's license agreement to proceed; type 'sudo clang -v' in a terminal window to take this step.
  
   USE="extra graphics png" emerge -uavN texlive
+
At this point, you will likely be able to compile the main C++ libraries.   The current macOS Catalina release ships with a basic Python 3 interpreter (version 3.7.3) which is enough to run the Waf build system but not much else.  To use Python bindings or other Python features, a fuller install of Python is recommended.  Visit https://www.python.org/downloads/mac-osx/ to download a Python 3 release (recommended), or else, if you prefer, use Homebrew or some other package manager to install a Python development environment.
  USE="cairo graphviz latex png svg" emerge -uavN doxygen imagemagick dia
+
  
* The Network Simulation Cradle (nsc) requires the flex lexical analyzer and bison parser generator:
+
At this point, you should be able to use ns-3 in C++ or Python programs.  The following options are available to add some additional libraries for more ns-3 features.  In general, a third-party installer like Homebrew or MacPorts is needed: 
 +
# '''Recommended for Mojave users''' (for better Homebrew compatibility), install the legacy headers package found at:  /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/Packages/macOS_SDK_headers_for_macOS_10.14.pkg.  We are not sure whether this is available for Catalina (10.15).
 +
# If you wish to use the NetAnim animator, you must install Qt5 (although Qt4 version also works with current releases).
 +
# If you wish to use mercurial, you must install it. Follow the instruction in the [http://mercurial.selenic.com mercurial web site].  [https://www.macports.org/ MacPorts] and [http://brew.sh/ Homebrew] are possible package managers to accomplish this.
 +
# If you wish to use the GTK-based ConfigStore GUI, we recommend homebrew:  if you install Gtk+3 using homebrew, you must install gtk+3.  You must install also "adwaita-icon-theme" (not installed by default), or you'll miss elements in the Gtk views
 +
.
 +
'''Note to Anaconda users:''' If you have installed Anaconda, you may encounter a build problem such as:
  
   emerge -av --noreplace flex bison
+
   "../src/wifi/model/wifi-phy.cc:65:46: error: no matching constructor for initialization of 'WifiPhy::ChannelToFrequencyWidthMap'
 +
  (aka 'map<pair<unsigned short, ns3::WifiPhyStandard>, pair<unsigned int, unsigned int> >')
 +
  WifiPhy::ChannelToFrequencyWidthMap WifiPhy::m_channelToFrequencyWidth =
 +
                                              ^
 +
  /usr/include/c++/4.2.1/bits/stl_map.h:188:9: note: candidate constructor template not viable: requires 2 arguments, but 79 were provided
 +
        map(_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last)
 +
        ^
 +
This can be worked around by configuring Waf to use the system Python instead of the Python version provided by Anaconda.  At the Waf configuration stage, try:
  
* Some basic mobility visualization tests require goocanvas:
+
  ./waf --python=/usr/bin/python configure ...
  
  emerge -av --noreplace goocanvas
+
When using build.py, the argument can be passed as follows:
  
* To install gcc-3.4 for some Network Simulation Cradle (nsc) stacks:
+
  ./build.py --enable-examples --enable-tests -- --python=/usr/bin/python
  
  USE="-nocxx nptl" emerge -uavN gcc:3.4
+
See: [https://www.nsnam.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=2778 issue 2778] in the ns-3 tracker for more information.
  
* To read pcap packet traces
+
=== Windows ===
+
  emerge -av --noreplace tcpdump
+
  
or you may prefer
+
For Windows 10, there are two main options.  Both involve using a Linux environment from within Windows.  ns-3 is not compatible with the Windows Visual Studio compiler and IDE (there have been a few efforts to add Visual Studio support, but they have been abandoned).
  
  emerge -av --noreplace wireshark
+
#Install a Linux virtual machine (e.g. using Hyper-V, VMware, etc.).
 
+
#.  Windows offers a [https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wsl/install-win10 Windows subsystem for Linux], providing an Ubuntu-like environmentFrom within this environment, one can follow the Ubuntu installation guide and obtain most ns-3 features.  
* Database support for statistics framework
+
 
+
  USE="threadsafe" emerge -uavN sqlite:3
+
 
+
* Xml-based version of the config store (requires libxml2 >= version 2.7)
+
 
+
  emerge -av --noreplace libxml2
+
 
+
* Support for Gustavo's ns-3-pyviz visualizer (following packages have no stable version as of day of writing, so ~arch for ACCEPT_KEYWORDS)
+
 
+
  ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge -av --noreplace pygraphviz kiwi pygoocanvas ipython
+
 
+
* Support for utils/check-style.py style check program
+
 
+
  ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge -av --noreplace uncrustify
+
 
+
* To summarize all of above up (without not yet stable pygraphviz, kiwi, pygoocanvas, uncrustify):
+
  USE="cairo curl extra graphics graphviz latex -nocxx nptl png svg\
+
  threads threadsafe" emerge -uavN bison bzr dia doxygen flex gcc\
+
  gcc:3.4 goocanvas gtk+:2 imagemagick libxml2 mercurial python\
+
  ipython sqlite:3 tcpdump texlive valgrind wireshark
+
 
+
=== FreeBSD ===
+
 
+
Many versions of FreeBSD provide gcc compilerThe latest version of gcc maintained for FreeBSD is 4.2.1.  ns-3 (as of ns-3.18.1 release) builds on gcc-4.2.1 and clang-3.3 for FreeBSD.
+
 
+
To use clang, one must set the 'CC=clang' and 'CXX=clang++' environment variables at compile time, such as:
+
 
+
  CC=clang CXX=clang++ ./waf configure
+
 
+
or set these in your environment variables.
+
 
+
=== Mac OS X ===
+
 
+
ns-3.18.1 release and higher are supported by the clang/llvm compiler used in Xcode.  To install (last tested for OS X El Capitan), one can follow these instructions:
+
# Download and install Xcode (most recently tested version 7.3.1; versions from 5 or later should work) from the App Store.  
+
## Make sure to install the "Command line tools" option, so that you install the clang/LLVM compilerThis is done by typing `xcode-select --install` once Xcode is installed.
+
## You will also have to agree to Apple's license agreement to proceed; type 'sudo clang -v' in a terminal window to take this step.
+
# Download and unpack the ns-allinone release as described in the tutorial
+
# If you wish to use the NetAnim animator, you must install [http://download.qt-project.org/archive/qt/4.8/ Qt] (version 4 series; version 5 is unsupported).
+
# If you wish to use mercurial, you must install it. Follow the instruction in the [http://mercurial.selenic.com mercurial web site][https://www.macports.org/ MacPorts] and [http://brew.sh/ Homebrew] are possible package managers to accomplish this.
+
 
+
For OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion) and earlier, using Xcode 4 series, please see [[HOWTO_get_ns-3_running_on_Mac_OS_X_(10.6.2_Intel)]] and follow steps 1 and 2 (prerequisites) and continue reading below if you want to work with a released version, and follow all steps if you want to work with a development version of ns-3.
+
 
+
=== Windows ===
+
  
There are two basic options for Windows support:
+
Below is some other older (possibly out-of-date) information regarding Windows:
  
# We provide HOWTO documents describing the process for installing Linux and getting ns-3 running using two popular virtualization products:  VirtualBox ([[HOWTO use VirtualBox to run simulations on Windows machines]]) and VMware ([[HOWTO use VMware to set up virtual networks (Windows)]]).
+
* We provide HOWTO documents describing the process for installing Linux and getting ns-3 running using two popular virtualization products:  VirtualBox ([[HOWTO use VirtualBox to run simulations on Windows machines]]) and VMware ([[HOWTO use VMware to set up virtual networks (Windows)]]).
# There is an experimental project, [[Ns-3 on Visual Studio 2012 |Ns3 on Windows]], using Visual Studio 2012.
+
* There is an experimental project, [[Ns-3 on Visual Studio 2012 |Ns3 on Windows]], using Visual Studio 2012.
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
Line 505: Line 533:
 
Bake is a new tool for installing, building and finding out the missing requirements for ns-3 in your own environment.   
 
Bake is a new tool for installing, building and finding out the missing requirements for ns-3 in your own environment.   
  
To use Bake you need to have at least Python (preferably 2.6 and above) and mercurial in your machine (see the section Prerequisites above to see how to install these).  
+
To use Bake you need to have at least Python (2.7 or above) and Git in your machine (see the section Prerequisites above to see how to install these).  
  
First you need to download Bake using Mercurial, go to where you want Bake to be installed and call
+
First you need to download Bake using Git, go to where you want Bake to be installed and call
  
   hg clone http://code.nsnam.org/bake
+
   git clone https://gitlab.com/nsnam/bake
  
 
It is advisable to add bake to your path.  
 
It is advisable to add bake to your path.  
Line 529: Line 557:
 
Before downloading and building ns-3  you need to configure bake to inform it which are the modules you want added to ns-3, the standard distribution for example.  
 
Before downloading and building ns-3  you need to configure bake to inform it which are the modules you want added to ns-3, the standard distribution for example.  
  
   bake.py configure -e ns-3.26
+
   bake.py configure -e ns-3.29
  
 
Then to see the modules it has added, and the specific system requirements for this configuration, you can call bake show:  
 
Then to see the modules it has added, and the specific system requirements for this configuration, you can call bake show:  
Line 553: Line 581:
 
The simplest way to get started using Mercurial repositories is to use the '''ns-3-allinone''' environment.  This is a set of scripts that manages the downloading and building of various subystems of ns-3 for you.  We recommend that you begin your ns-3 adventures in this environment as it can really simplify your life at this point.
 
The simplest way to get started using Mercurial repositories is to use the '''ns-3-allinone''' environment.  This is a set of scripts that manages the downloading and building of various subystems of ns-3 for you.  We recommend that you begin your ns-3 adventures in this environment as it can really simplify your life at this point.
  
==== Downloading ns-3 Using Mercurial ====
+
==== Downloading ns-3 Using Git ====
  
One practice is to create a directory called '''repos''' in one's home directory under which one can keep local Mercurial repositories.  If you adopt that approach, you can get a copy of ns-3-allinone by typing the following into your Linux shell (assuming you have installed Mercurial):
+
One practice is to create a directory called '''repos''' in one's home directory under which one can keep local Git repositories.  If you adopt that approach, you can get a copy of ns-3-allinone by typing the following into your Linux shell (assuming you have installed Git):
  
 
   cd
 
   cd
 
   mkdir repos
 
   mkdir repos
 
   cd repos
 
   cd repos
   hg clone http://code.nsnam.org/ns-3-allinone
+
   git clone https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-allinone.git
  
As the hg (Mercurial) command executes, you should see something like the following displayed,
+
As the git command executes, you should see something like the following displayed,
  
   destination directory: ns-3-allinone
+
   Cloning into 'ns-3-allinone'...
   requesting all changes
+
   remote: Enumerating objects: 232, done.
   adding changesets
+
   remote: Counting objects: 100% (232/232), done.
   adding manifests
+
   remote: Compressing objects: 100% (121/121), done.
   adding file changes
+
   remote: Total 232 (delta 135), reused 197 (delta 108)
   added 26 changesets with 40 changes to 7 files
+
   Receiving objects: 100% (232/232), 99.76 KiB | 513.00 KiB/s, done.
  7 files updated, 0 files merged, 0 files removed, 0 files unresolved
+
  Resolving deltas: 100% (135/135), done.
  
 
After the clone command completes, you should have a directory called ns-3-allinone under your ~/repos directory, the contents of which should look something like the following:
 
After the clone command completes, you should have a directory called ns-3-allinone under your ~/repos directory, the contents of which should look something like the following:
Line 576: Line 604:
 
   build.py*  constants.py  dist.py*  download.py*  README  util.py
 
   build.py*  constants.py  dist.py*  download.py*  README  util.py
  
Notice that you really just downloaded some Python scripts.  The next step will be to use those scripts to download and build the ns-3 distribution of your choice.
+
Notice that you really just downloaded some Python scripts and not yet the C++ code.  The next step will be to use those scripts to download and build the ns-3 distribution of your choice.
  
If you go to the following link: http://code.nsnam.org/ you will see a number of repositories.  Many are the private repositories of the ns-3 development team.  The repositories of interest to you will be prefixed with '''ns-3'''.  Official releases of ns-3 will be numbered as ns-3.release.hotfix.  For example, a second hotfix to a still hypothetical release nine of ns-3 would be numbered as ns-3.9.2 on this page.
+
If you go to the following link: https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ you will see a number of repositories.  Many are the private repositories of the ns-3 development team.  The repositories of interest to you will be prefixed with '''ns-3'''.  Official releases of ns-3 will be numbered as ns-3.release.hotfix.  For example, a second hotfix to a still hypothetical release nine of ns-3 would be numbered as ns-3.9.2 on this page.
  
The current development snapshot (unreleased) of ns-3 may be found at http://code.nsnam.org/ns-3-dev/.  The developers attempt to keep these repository in consistent, working states but they are in a development area with unreleased code present, so you may want to consider staying with an official release if you do not need newly-introduced features.
+
The current development snapshot (unreleased) of ns-3 may be found at https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-dev/.  The developers attempt to keep these repository in consistent, working states but they are in a development area with unreleased code present, so you may want to consider staying with an official release if you do not need newly-introduced features.
  
Since the release numbers are going to be changing, we will stick with the more constant ns-3-dev here, but you can replace the string ''ns-3-dev'' with your choice of release (e.g., ns-3.26) in the text below.  You can find the latest version of the code either by inspection of the repository list or by going to the ''Getting Started'' web page and looking for the latest release identifier.
+
You can find the latest version of the code either by inspection of the repository list or by going to the ''Getting Started'' web page and looking for the latest release identifier.
  
To download the most common options type the following into your shell (remember you can substitute the name of your chosen release number instead of ns-3-dev)
+
To download the most recent release (assuming it is ns-3.30 in this case), type the following into your shell (remember you can substitute the name of your chosen release number, or omit specifying it to download the tip of ns-3-dev)
  
   ./download.py -n ns-3-dev
+
   ./download.py -n ns-3.30
  
 
After download process completes, you should have several new directories under ~/repos/ns-3-allinone:
 
After download process completes, you should have several new directories under ~/repos/ns-3-allinone:
  
   build.py*    constants.pyc download.py* nsc/        README      util.pyc
+
   bake      constants.py  download.py  ns-3.30    __pycache__  util.py
   constants.py  dist.py*       ns-3-dev/    pybindgen/ util.py
+
   build.py  dist.py      netanim      pybindgen  README
 +
 
  
Go ahead and change into ns-3-dev under your ~/repos/ns-3-allinone directory.  You should see something like the following there:
+
Go ahead and change into ns-3.30 under your ~/repos/ns-3-allinone directory.  You should see something like the following there:
  
   AUTHORS      examples/  RELEASE_NOTES utils/  wscript
+
   AUTHORS      CONTRIBUTING.md Makefile      src          utils.py  waf-tools
   bindings/    LICENSE    samples/      VERSION  wutils.py
+
   bindings     doc              README.md      test.py     VERSION  wscript
   CHANGES.html  ns3/      scratch/      waf*
+
   CHANGES.html  examples        RELEASE_NOTES  testpy.supp  waf       wutils.py
   doc/         README    src/          waf.bat*
+
   contrib      LICENSE         scratch        utils        waf.bat
  
 
You are now ready to build the ns-3 distribution.
 
You are now ready to build the ns-3 distribution.
Line 611: Line 640:
 
   mkdir tarballs
 
   mkdir tarballs
 
   cd tarballs
 
   cd tarballs
   wget http://www.nsnam.org/release/ns-allinone-3.13.tar.bz2
+
   wget http://www.nsnam.org/release/ns-allinone-3.30.tar.bz2
   tar xjf ns-allinone-3.13.tar.bz2
+
   tar xjf ns-allinone-3.30.tar.bz2
  
If you change into the directory '''ns-allinone-3.13''' you should see a number of files:
+
If you change into the directory '''ns-allinone-3.30''' you should see a number of files:
  
   build.py*      ns-3.13/    pybindgen-0.15.0.795/ util.py
+
   bake      constants.py   ns-3.30          README
  constants.py  nsc-0.5.2/  README
+
  build.py  netanim-3.108  pybindgen-0.20.0  util.py
  
 
You are now ready to build the ns-3 distribution.
 
You are now ready to build the ns-3 distribution.

Latest revision as of 19:40, 3 December 2021

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This is a detailed installation guide for ns-3. Basic installation instructions can be found in the ns-3 tutorial (see Getting Started chapter).

Supported platforms

ns-3 is primarily developed on GNU/Linux and macOS platforms, and the minimal requirements to run basic simulations are a C++ compiler; either g++ or clang++ compiler, and Python (version 3) interpreter. The below instructions are per-platform instructions for supplemental packages that enable optional features of ns-3 or companion tools.

Operating system and compiler support

ns-3 is supported and currently tested on the following primary platforms:

  1. Linux (x86 and x86_64): gcc/g++ versions 7 and above
    1. Note: If you are using RHEL or Centos, you will likely need to install a more up-to-date compiler than the default; search for how to enable 'software collections' or 'devtoolset' on these distributions. Other Linux distributions typically have a suitable default compiler (at least version 4.9).
  2. MacOS Apple LLVM: version 11.0.0 and above
  3. FreeBSD and Linux (x86_64): clang/LLVM version 8 and later

The minimum Python version supported is currently version 3.6 or greater (major version 3).

By supported, we mean that the project tries to support most or all of the build options on these platforms unless there is a good reason to exclude the option; and at least the debug build will compile. If you intend to do serious work using ns-3, and are forced by circumstances to use a Windows platform, consider virtualization of a popular Linux platform or using Windows Subsystem for Linux.

Some aspects of ns-3 depend on Unix (or specifically Linux) support, such as the emulation or TapBridge features, and those components are not enabled on the Windows or MacOS versions cited above.

Additional maintainers are invited to make more platforms, compilers and environments supported.

Integrated development environment support

Eclipse

The Eclipse IDE is not an officially supported platform, but some developers use it and have compiled a HOWTO.

NetBeans

NetBeans is not officially supported either, but there is a HOWTO as well.

QtCreator

Same rule applies to Qt Creator; it's not officially supported, but there are developers that use it and HOWTO is available.

Support for optional features

There are a few options that are not enabled by default and are not available on all platforms. At the end of the configuration process (explained below), the status of these options are shown as detected by a waf script:

---- Summary of optional NS-3 features:
Python Bindings               : not enabled (Python library or headers missing)
BRITE Integration             : not enabled (BRITE not enabled (see option --with-brite))
NS-3 Click Integration        : not enabled (nsclick not enabled (see option --with-nsclick))
GtkConfigStore                : not enabled (library 'gtk+-2.0 >= 2.12' not found)
XmlIo                         : not enabled (library 'libxml-2.0 >= 2.7' not found)
Threading Primitives          : enabled
Real Time Simulator           : enabled
Emulated Net Device           : not enabled (<netpacket/packet.h> include not detected)
Network Simulation Cradle     : not enabled (architecture None not supported)
MPI Support                   : not enabled (option --enable-mpi not selected)
NS-3 OpenFlow Integration     : not enabled (OpenFlow not enabled (see option --with-openflow))
SQlite stats data output      : not enabled (library 'sqlite3' not found)
Tap Bridge                    : not enabled (<linux/if_tun.h> include not detected)
PyViz visualizer              : not enabled (Python Bindings are needed but not enabled)
Use sudo to set suid bit      : not enabled (option --enable-sudo not selected)
Build tests                   : not enabled (defaults to disabled)
Build examples                : not enabled (defaults to disabled)
GNU Scientific Library (GSL)  : not enabled (GSL not found)

Generally if the platform is missing some requirement for an option it is marked as "not enabled." Note that "disabled by user request" will be shown when the user explicitly disables a feature (such as "--disable-python"); and if a feature defaults to disabled this will also be noted (e.g., option --enable-sudo not selected).

The table below is meant to help sort out the different features and on which platforms they are supported. This table reflects the status as of ns-3.15 and may have changed since then:

Option status
Option Linux FreeBSD Mac OS X
Optimized build Y Y Y
Python bindings Y Y Y
Threading Y Y Y
Real-time simulator Y Y N
Emulated Net Device Y N N
Tap Bridge Y N N
Network simulation cradle Y1  ? N
Static builds Y Y Y

Key: Y = supported; N = not supported; ? = unknown; dev = support in ns-3-dev (next release)

Notes:

  1. NSC works best with gcc-3.4 or gcc-4.2 or greater series. Try to avoid using gcc-4.0 and gcc-4.1 series; some build problems have been found with these versions of compilers.

Using older version of ns-3 on newer systems

It can be the case that trying to use an old version of ns-3 on a newer system can lead to warnings or errors because the compilers have become more strict over time. The below wiki page has some suggestions to work around this.

https://www.nsnam.org/wiki/HOWTO_build_old_versions_of_ns-3_on_newer_compilers

Using newer version of ns-3 on older systems

Conversely, it can be the case that a user has an old version of Linux but newer compilers and libraries are needed to run the latest versions of ns-3. This blog has some recommendations on how to use chroot jails to work around this:

https://www.projectguideline.com/installing-ns3-35-in-debian-10-chroot-jail-under-debian-11-host-os-or-any-version-of-linux-host/

Prerequisites

The core of ns-3 requires a gcc/g++ installation of 4.9 or greater (Linux), or a recent version of clang compiler (OS X, Linux, or BSD), and Python 3.5 or greater. As mentioned above, different options require additional support. This is a list of packages (for Debian/Ubuntu systems) that are needed to support different ns-3 options. Note that other distributions (e.g., Fedora, FreeBSD) may have different package names or capitalization (e.g. ImageMagik). Installation should be similar for Red Hat/Fedora based systems, with "yum" replacing "apt-get", but some differences exist, so below is a guide for both Ubuntu (should generally apply to Debian) and Fedora/RedHat-based systems:

Linux

CentOS

Note: CentOS version 6 series (currently 6.8) requires an upgrade of both gcc and Python to meet current ns-3 requirements. See these instructions if you need to upgrade: https://www.nsnam.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=2667#c1

The below instructions are based on a CentOS 6.6 install in November 2014; other RedHat/Fedora-based installs are likely similar.

  • minimal requirements for C++ (release): This is the minimal set of packages needed to run ns-3 C++ programs from a released tarball.
 yum install gcc-c++ python3
  • minimal requirements for Python (release): Python development headers are necessary to enable the Python bindings (for writing ns-3 programs from Python):
 yum install python3-devel

The following additional packages add functionality to the build or documentation.

  • The netanim animator requires Qt5 development packages:
 yum install qt5-devel
  • Mercurial is needed to work with ns-3 development repositories.
 yum install mercurial
  • Doxygen and related inline documentation:
 yum install doxygen graphviz ImageMagick
  • The ns-3 manual and tutorial are written in reStructuredText for Sphinx (doc/tutorial, doc/manual, doc/models), and figures typically in dia:
 yum install python3-sphinx dia texlive texlive-latex
  • MPI-based parallel, distributed simulation support requires openmpi:
 yum install openmpi openmpi-devel
  • To read pcap packet traces generated by ns-3
 yum install tcpdump wireshark
  • Database support for statistics
 yum install sqlite sqlite-devel
  • Xml-based version of the config store (requires libxml2 >= version 2.7)
 yum install libxml2 libxml2-devel
  • Support for utils/check-style.py style check program
 yum install uncrustify
  • Support for openflowswitch requires libxml2, if not installed above, and Boost libraries
 yum install libxml2 libxml2-devel boost-devel
  • Support for ns-3-pyviz visualizer

This is a bit more involved due to lack of package support in the standard repositories.

 yum install graphviz graphviz-devel python3-setuptools-devel ipython3
 sudo easy_install pygraphviz

Some additional packages are needed (goocanvas and pygoocanvas). It is suggested to enable the RPMForge repo as described here: http://wiki.centos.org/AdditionalResources/Repositories/RPMForge. Then, try this:

 yum install goocanvas pygtk2-devel

Then obtain the RPM for pygoocanvas and pygoocanvas-devel from here: http://li.nux.ro/download/nux/dextop/el6/x86_64/

 rpm -ivh pygoocanvas-0.14.1-3.el6.nux.x86_64.rpm 
 rpm -ivh pygoocanvas-devel-0.14.1-3.el6.nux.x86_64.rpm 

Or, if you prefer, build pygoocanvas from source code found here: https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/PyGoocanvas

Note, if you perform this install successfully on a CentOS server that does not have a desktop installed (i.e. a CentOS 'minimal install'), you will still not be able to see pyviz enabled; you will see the configuration report:

 PyViz visualizer              : not enabled (Missing python modules: gtk)

because the Python gtk module opens the display upon import.

  • Git is needed to fetch click modular routing and pygccxml
 yum install git
  • An optional but recommended package (for improving some wireless model fidelity) is GNU scientific library:
 yum install gsl gsl-devel
  • A GTK-based configuration system
 yum install gtk2 gtk2-devel
  • Debugging:
 yum install gdb valgrind

Jump to installation

Ubuntu/Debian/Mint

The following list of packages should be accurate through the Ubuntu 21.04 release; other releases or other Debian-based systems may slightly vary. Ubuntu 16.04 LTS release is probably the oldest release that is known to work with the most recent ns-3 releases.

Note: As of ns-3.30 release (August 2019), ns-3 uses Python 3 by default, but earlier releases depend on Python 2 packages, and at least a Python 2 interpreter is recommended. If working with an earlier release, one may in general substitute 'python' for 'python3' in the below (e.g. install 'python-dev' instead of 'python3-dev').

  • minimal requirements for C++ users (release 3.35 and earlier): This is the minimal set of packages needed to run ns-3 from a released tarball.
 apt install g++ python3
  • minimal requirements for C++ users (release 3.36 and development): For ns-3-dev and ns-3.36 (and later) releases, CMake is also needed.
 apt install g++ python3 cmake
  • minimal requirements for Python API users (release 3.30 and newer, and ns-3-dev): This is the minimal set of packages needed to work with Python bindings from a released tarball.
 apt install g++ python3 python3-dev pkg-config sqlite3 cmake
  • additional minimal requirements for Python (development): For use of ns-3-allinone repository (cloned from Git), additional packages are needed to fetch and successfully install pybindgen and netanim.
 apt install python3-setuptools git
  • Netanim animator: qt5 development tools are needed for Netanim animator; qt4 will also work but we have migrated to qt5.
 apt install qtbase5-dev qtchooser qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev-tools

Note: For Ubuntu 20.10 and earlier, the single 'qt5-default' package suffices

 apt install qt5-default
  • Support for ns-3-pyviz visualizer
    • For Ubuntu 18.04 and later, python-pygoocanvas is no longer provided. The ns-3.29 release and later upgrades the support to GTK+ version 3, and requires these packages:
 apt install gir1.2-goocanvas-2.0 python3-gi python3-gi-cairo python3-pygraphviz gir1.2-gtk-3.0 ipython3  
    • For ns-3.28 and earlier releases, PyViz is based on GTK+ 2, GooCanvas, and GraphViz:
 apt install python-pygraphviz python-kiwi python-pygoocanvas libgoocanvas-dev ipython
  • Support for MPI-based distributed emulation
apt install openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev
  • Support for bake build tool:
 apt install autoconf cvs bzr unrar
  • Debugging:
 apt install gdb valgrind 
  • Support for utils/check-style.py code style check program
apt install uncrustify
  • Doxygen and related inline documentation:
 apt install doxygen graphviz imagemagick
 apt install texlive texlive-extra-utils texlive-latex-extra texlive-font-utils dvipng latexmk
    • If you get an error such as 'convert ... not authorized source-temp/figures/lena-dual-stripe.eps', see this post about editing ImageMagick's security policy configuration: https://cromwell-intl.com/open-source/pdf-not-authorized.html. In brief, you will want to make this kind of change to ImageMagick security policy:
   --- ImageMagick-6/policy.xml.bak	2020-04-28 21:10:08.564613444 -0700
   +++ ImageMagick-6/policy.xml	2020-04-28 21:10:29.413438798 -0700
   @@ -87,10 +87,10 @@
      <policy domain="path" rights="none" pattern="@*"/>
   -  <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="PS" />
   +  <policy domain="coder" rights="read|write" pattern="PS" />
      <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="PS2" />
      <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="PS3" />
      <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="EPS" />
   -  <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="PDF" />
   +  <policy domain="coder" rights="read|write" pattern="PDF" />
      <policy domain="coder" rights="none" pattern="XPS" />
    </policymap>


  • The ns-3 manual and tutorial are written in reStructuredText for Sphinx (doc/tutorial, doc/manual, doc/models), and figures typically in dia (also needs the texlive packages above):
 apt install python3-sphinx dia 

Note: Sphinx version >= 1.12 required for ns-3.15. To check your version, type "sphinx-build". To fetch this package alone, outside of the Ubuntu package system, try "sudo easy_install -U Sphinx".

  • GNU Scientific Library (GSL) support for more accurate 802.11b WiFi error models (not needed for OFDM):
 apt install gsl-bin libgsl-dev libgslcblas0

If the above doesn't work (doesn't detect GSL on the system), consult: https://coral.ise.lehigh.edu/jild13/2016/07/11/hello/. But don't worry if you are not using 802.11b models.

  • To read pcap packet traces
apt install tcpdump
  • Database support for statistics framework
apt install sqlite sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev
  • Xml-based version of the config store (requires libxml2 >= version 2.7)
apt install libxml2 libxml2-dev
  • Support for generating modified python bindings
 apt install cmake libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 libclang-dev llvm-dev automake python3-pip
 python3 -m pip install --user cxxfilt

and you will want to install castxml and pygccxml as per the instructions for python bindings (or through the bake build tool as described in the tutorial). The 'castxml' and 'pygccxml' packages provided by Ubuntu 18.04 and earlier are not recommended; a source build (coordinated via bake) is recommended. If you plan to work with bindings or rescan them for any ns-3 C++ changes you might make, please read the chapter in the manual on this topic.

Note: Ubuntu versions (through 19.04) and systems based on it (e.g. Linux Mint 18) default to an old version of clang and llvm (3.8), when simply 'libclang-dev' and 'llvm-dev' are specified. The packaging on these 3.8 versions is broken. Users of Ubuntu will want to explicitly install a newer version by specifying 'libclang-6.0-dev' and 'llvm-6.0-dev'. Other versions newer than 6.0 may work (not tested).

  • A GTK-based configuration system
 apt install libgtk-3-dev
  • To experiment with virtual machines and ns-3
 apt install vtun lxc uml-utilities
  • Support for openflow module (requires libxml2-dev if not installed above) and Boost development libraries
apt install libxml2 libxml2-dev libboost-all-dev

Jump to installation

Fedora/RedHat

The following list of packages should be aligned with recent Fedora releases; other releases may slightly vary. Note that these distributions sometimes change the package structure over time.

Important: If you are using RedHat or CentOS, either versions 6 or 7, the default compilers are too old to build recent ns-3 releases. You must upgrade gcc and g++ to a more recent version. See below.

Fedora and virtual machines

The Waf build system can use several GB of space on /tmp when building ns-3. Fedora and RedHat have chosen to mount /tmp on tmpfs, sized at half of the RAM by default. On a virtual machine, where possibly as little as 4GB of RAM may be configured, this will lead to a 2GB /tmp partition and the ns-3 build will fail with a message such as:

 src/internet/bindings/ns3module.cc:148895:1: fatal error: error writing to /tmp/ccvdnttM.s: No space left on device

One workaround is to increase your tmpfs size, such as (as root user):

 # mount -o remount,size=4G,noatime /tmp/

This resizing must be done upon each reboot, and you should ensure that you have a swap partition also configured.

Release-specific issues

  • We do not support RHEL 6 or CentOS 6 anymore; nor do we support older versions of Fedora such as less than Fedora 30.

Required and optional packages

  • minimal requirements for C++ (release): This is the minimal set of packages needed to run most of ns-3's C++ programs from a released tarball.
 dnf install gcc-c++ python3
  • minimal requirements for Python (release): This is the minimal set of packages needed to use Python bindings from a released tarball.
 dnf install gcc-c++ python3 python3-devel
  • Git is needed to work with ns-3 development repositories.
 dnf install git
  • An optional but recommended package (for improving some wireless model fidelity) is GNU scientific library:
 dnf install gsl gsl-devel
  • Support for netanim animator:
 dnf install qt5-devel
  • A GTK-based configuration system

Prior to ns-3.29, use GTK+ version 2:

 dnf install gtk2 gtk2-devel

Starting with ns-3.29, use GTK+ version 3:

 dnf install gtk3 gtk3-devel
  • Debugging:
 dnf install gdb valgrind 
  • Doxygen and related inline documentation:
 dnf install doxygen graphviz ImageMagick
  • The ns-3 manual and tutorial are written in reStructuredText for Sphinx (doc/tutorial, doc/manual, doc/models), and figures typically in dia:
 dnf install python3-sphinx dia texlive texlive-latex texlive-fncychap texlive-capt-of texlive-tabulary texlive-eqparbox
 dnf install texlive-epstopdf texlive-titlesec texlive-framed texlive-dvipng texlive-threeparttable texlive-wrapfig
 dnf install texlive-multirow ImageMagick
  • To read pcap packet traces
 dnf install tcpdump
  • Database support for statistics framework
 dnf install sqlite sqlite-devel
  • Xml-based version of the config store (requires libxml2 >= version 2.7)
 dnf install libxml2 libxml2-devel
  • Support for utils/check-style.py style check program
 dnf install uncrustify
  • Support for MPI distributed simulations
 dnf install openmpi openmpi-devel environment-modules

Steve Smith notes that the shell must be restarted after environment-modules package is installed, since environment-modules modifies the bash initialization scripts to enable the module command. Then, to find the programs mpic++ and mpiexec, one must do:

$ module load mpi/openmpi-x86_64

and then the commands should be found by the shell:

$ which mpic++ mpiexec

Steve Smith also noted problems with Fedora machines that do not have APX support, such as virtual machines: https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-dev/-/issues/397

Solution for those machines is to switch to mpich:

$ dnf install mpich mpich-devel environment-modules
$ module load mpi/mpich-x86_64
  • Support for openflowswitch requires libxml2, if not installed above, and Boost development libraries
 dnf install libxml2 libxml2-devel boost-devel
  • Support for ns-3-pyviz visualizer (ns-3.28 release and earlier)
 dnf install redhat-rpm-config goocanvas-devel graphviz graphviz-devel python-setuptools python-kiwi pygoocanvas ipython
 easy_install pygraphviz
  • Support for ns-3 pyviz visualizer (ns-3.29 release and later)
 pygobject3-devel python3-gobject gobject-introspection-devel goocanvas2-devel graphviz-devel graphviz ipython
 easy_install pygraphviz
  • Support for generating modified python bindings
 dnf install cmake clang-devel llvm-devel llvm-static
 pip3 install --user cxxfilt

and you will want to install castxml and pygccxml as per the instructions for python bindings (or through the bake build tool as described in the tutorial). If you plan to work with bindings or rescan them for any ns-3 C++ changes you might make, please read the chapter in the manual on this topic.

  • Support for bake tool:
 dnf install make patch autoconf cvs

Jump to installation

macOS

macOS installation of ns-3 relies on the Xcode command line tools provided by Apple, and the clang/llvm compiler used therein. A third-party package manager such as Homebrew can be used for optional extensions to ns-3 such as libxml2.

The current version of macOS is 'Catalina' (10.15) and the version of Xcode is 11.2, as of this writing.

If you are having problems with ns-3.29 and macOS, please look at the Errata page for some hints, or consider to use the development version (ns-3-dev) of ns-3 which should work now. ns-3.30 is not know to have macOS issues.

The main steps to follow to prepare your macOS machine for a base ns-3 install (Xcode tools, and Python) are as follows:

  1. Download and install Xcode Command Line Tools (most recently tested version 11.2) from the App Store, or the full Xcode.
    1. If you installed full Xcode, you still need to type `xcode-select --install` to obtain the command line tools.
    2. You will also have to agree to Apple's license agreement to proceed; type 'sudo clang -v' in a terminal window to take this step.

At this point, you will likely be able to compile the main C++ libraries. The current macOS Catalina release ships with a basic Python 3 interpreter (version 3.7.3) which is enough to run the Waf build system but not much else. To use Python bindings or other Python features, a fuller install of Python is recommended. Visit https://www.python.org/downloads/mac-osx/ to download a Python 3 release (recommended), or else, if you prefer, use Homebrew or some other package manager to install a Python development environment.

At this point, you should be able to use ns-3 in C++ or Python programs. The following options are available to add some additional libraries for more ns-3 features. In general, a third-party installer like Homebrew or MacPorts is needed:

  1. Recommended for Mojave users (for better Homebrew compatibility), install the legacy headers package found at: /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/Packages/macOS_SDK_headers_for_macOS_10.14.pkg. We are not sure whether this is available for Catalina (10.15).
  2. If you wish to use the NetAnim animator, you must install Qt5 (although Qt4 version also works with current releases).
  3. If you wish to use mercurial, you must install it. Follow the instruction in the mercurial web site. MacPorts and Homebrew are possible package managers to accomplish this.
  4. If you wish to use the GTK-based ConfigStore GUI, we recommend homebrew: if you install Gtk+3 using homebrew, you must install gtk+3. You must install also "adwaita-icon-theme" (not installed by default), or you'll miss elements in the Gtk views

. Note to Anaconda users: If you have installed Anaconda, you may encounter a build problem such as:

 "../src/wifi/model/wifi-phy.cc:65:46: error: no matching constructor for initialization of 'WifiPhy::ChannelToFrequencyWidthMap' 
 (aka 'map<pair<unsigned short, ns3::WifiPhyStandard>, pair<unsigned int, unsigned int> >')
 WifiPhy::ChannelToFrequencyWidthMap WifiPhy::m_channelToFrequencyWidth =
                                              ^
 /usr/include/c++/4.2.1/bits/stl_map.h:188:9: note: candidate constructor template not viable: requires 2 arguments, but 79 were provided
       map(_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last)
       ^

This can be worked around by configuring Waf to use the system Python instead of the Python version provided by Anaconda. At the Waf configuration stage, try:

 ./waf --python=/usr/bin/python configure ...

When using build.py, the argument can be passed as follows:

 ./build.py --enable-examples --enable-tests -- --python=/usr/bin/python

See: issue 2778 in the ns-3 tracker for more information.

Windows

For Windows 10, there are two main options. Both involve using a Linux environment from within Windows. ns-3 is not compatible with the Windows Visual Studio compiler and IDE (there have been a few efforts to add Visual Studio support, but they have been abandoned).

  1. . Install a Linux virtual machine (e.g. using Hyper-V, VMware, etc.).
  2. . Windows offers a Windows subsystem for Linux, providing an Ubuntu-like environment. From within this environment, one can follow the Ubuntu installation guide and obtain most ns-3 features.

Below is some other older (possibly out-of-date) information regarding Windows:

Installation

Installation with Bake

Bake is a new tool for installing, building and finding out the missing requirements for ns-3 in your own environment.

To use Bake you need to have at least Python (2.7 or above) and Git in your machine (see the section Prerequisites above to see how to install these).

First you need to download Bake using Git, go to where you want Bake to be installed and call

 git clone https://gitlab.com/nsnam/bake

It is advisable to add bake to your path.

 export BAKE_HOME=`pwd`/bake 
 export PATH=$PATH:$BAKE_HOME
 export PYTHONPATH=$PYTHONPATH:$BAKE_HOME

After that you can use Bake to find the missing packages, download build and install ns-3 and its modules.

To find out what is missing in your system and may be needed for installing ns-3 you can call bake check:

 bake.py check

You should have seen something like:

> Python - OK
> GNU C++ compiler - OK
> Mercurial - OK
> CVS - OK
> GIT - OK
> Bazaar - OK
> Tar tool - OK
> Unzip tool - OK
> Unrar tool - OK
> 7z data compression utility - OK
> XZ data compression utility - OK
> Make - OK
> cMake - OK
> patch tool - OK
> autoreconf tool - OK
> Path searched for tools: /usr/lib64/qt-3.3/bin
/usr/lib64/ccache /usr/local/bin /usr/bin/bin/usr/local/sbin /usr/sbin
/sbin /user/dcamara/home/scripts/user/dcamara/home/INRIA/Programs/bin
/user/dcamara/home/INRIA/repos/llvm/build/Debug+Asserts/bin

Before downloading and building ns-3 you need to configure bake to inform it which are the modules you want added to ns-3, the standard distribution for example.

  bake.py configure -e ns-3.29

Then to see the modules it has added, and the specific system requirements for this configuration, you can call bake show:


  bake.py show   


To download the modules, build and install you can call bake deploy


  bake.py deploy

This will download the selected modules, all their dependencies and build ns-3 with all these independent modules. You can also perform this installation step by step, i.e. by calling download and build in different steps.


  bake.py download
  bake.py build

Manual installation

The ns-3 code is available in Mercurial repositories on the server http://code.nsnam.org (look for the latest release e.g., "ns-3.26"). You can download a tarball of the latest release at http://www.nsnam.org/releases or you can work with our repositories using Mercurial. We recommend using Mercurial unless there's a good reason not to (See the end of this section for instructions on how to get a tarball release).

The simplest way to get started using Mercurial repositories is to use the ns-3-allinone environment. This is a set of scripts that manages the downloading and building of various subystems of ns-3 for you. We recommend that you begin your ns-3 adventures in this environment as it can really simplify your life at this point.

Downloading ns-3 Using Git

One practice is to create a directory called repos in one's home directory under which one can keep local Git repositories. If you adopt that approach, you can get a copy of ns-3-allinone by typing the following into your Linux shell (assuming you have installed Git):

 cd
 mkdir repos
 cd repos
 git clone https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-allinone.git

As the git command executes, you should see something like the following displayed,

 Cloning into 'ns-3-allinone'...
 remote: Enumerating objects: 232, done.
 remote: Counting objects: 100% (232/232), done.
 remote: Compressing objects: 100% (121/121), done.
 remote: Total 232 (delta 135), reused 197 (delta 108)
 Receiving objects: 100% (232/232), 99.76 KiB | 513.00 KiB/s, done.
 Resolving deltas: 100% (135/135), done.

After the clone command completes, you should have a directory called ns-3-allinone under your ~/repos directory, the contents of which should look something like the following:

 build.py*  constants.py  dist.py*  download.py*  README  util.py

Notice that you really just downloaded some Python scripts and not yet the C++ code. The next step will be to use those scripts to download and build the ns-3 distribution of your choice.

If you go to the following link: https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ you will see a number of repositories. Many are the private repositories of the ns-3 development team. The repositories of interest to you will be prefixed with ns-3. Official releases of ns-3 will be numbered as ns-3.release.hotfix. For example, a second hotfix to a still hypothetical release nine of ns-3 would be numbered as ns-3.9.2 on this page.

The current development snapshot (unreleased) of ns-3 may be found at https://gitlab.com/nsnam/ns-3-dev/. The developers attempt to keep these repository in consistent, working states but they are in a development area with unreleased code present, so you may want to consider staying with an official release if you do not need newly-introduced features.

You can find the latest version of the code either by inspection of the repository list or by going to the Getting Started web page and looking for the latest release identifier.

To download the most recent release (assuming it is ns-3.30 in this case), type the following into your shell (remember you can substitute the name of your chosen release number, or omit specifying it to download the tip of ns-3-dev)

 ./download.py -n ns-3.30

After download process completes, you should have several new directories under ~/repos/ns-3-allinone:

 bake      constants.py  download.py  ns-3.30    __pycache__  util.py
 build.py  dist.py       netanim      pybindgen  README


Go ahead and change into ns-3.30 under your ~/repos/ns-3-allinone directory. You should see something like the following there:

 AUTHORS       CONTRIBUTING.md  Makefile       src          utils.py  waf-tools
 bindings      doc              README.md      test.py      VERSION   wscript
 CHANGES.html  examples         RELEASE_NOTES  testpy.supp  waf       wutils.py
 contrib       LICENSE          scratch        utils        waf.bat

You are now ready to build the ns-3 distribution.

Downloading ns-3 Using a Tarball

The process for downloading ns-3 via tarball is simpler than the Mercurial process since all of the pieces are pre-packaged for you. You just have to pick a release, download it and decompress it.

As mentioned above, one practice is to create a directory called repos in one's home directory under which one can keep local Mercurial repositories. One could also keep a tarballs directory. If you adopt the tarballs directory approach, you can get a copy of a release by typing the following into your Linux shell (substitute the appropriate version numbers, of course):

 cd
 mkdir tarballs
 cd tarballs
 wget http://www.nsnam.org/release/ns-allinone-3.30.tar.bz2
 tar xjf ns-allinone-3.30.tar.bz2

If you change into the directory ns-allinone-3.30 you should see a number of files:

 bake      constants.py   ns-3.30           README
 build.py  netanim-3.108  pybindgen-0.20.0  util.py

You are now ready to build the ns-3 distribution.

Building ns-3 with build.py

The first time you build the ns-3 project you should build using the allinone environment. This will get the project configured for you in the most commonly useful way.

Change into the directory you created in the download section above. If you downloaded using Mercurial you should have a directory called ns-3-allinone under your ~/repos directory. If you downloaded using a tarball you should have a directory called something like ns-allinone-3.13 under your ~/tarballs directory. Type the following:

 ./build.py

You will see lots of typical compiler output messages displayed as the build script builds the various pieces you downloaded. Eventually you should see the following magic words:

 Build finished successfully (00:02:37)
 Leaving directory `./ns-3-dev'

Once the project has built you typically will not use ns-3-allinone scripts. You will now interact directly with Waf and we do it in the ns-3-dev directory and not in the ns-3-allinone directory.

Configuration with Waf

To see valid configure options, type ./waf --help. The most important option is -d <debug level>. Valid debug levels (which are listed in waf --help) are: "debug" or "optimized". It is also possible to change the flags used for compilation with (e.g.):

 CXXFLAGS="-O3" ./waf configure 

or, alternately, the gcc compiler

 CXX=g++-3.4 ./waf configure

Note: Unlike some other build tools, to change the build target, the option must be supplied during the configure stage rather than the build stage (i.e., "./waf -d optimized" will not work; instead, do

 ./waf -d optimized configure; ./waf 

The resulting binaries are placed in build/<debuglevel>/srcpath. For example, in a debug build you can find the executable for the first.cc example as build/examples/first. You can debug the executable directly by:

 ./waf --shell
 cd build/debug/examples
 gdb ns-<version>-first-debug

Of course, you can run gdb in emacs, or use your favorite debugger such as ddd or insight just as easily. In an optimized build you can find the executable for the first.cc example as build/examples/ns-<version>-first-optimized.

In order to forcibly disable python bindings, you can provide the following option:

 ./waf --disable-python configure

In order to tell the build system to use the sudo program to set the suid bit if required, you can provide the following option:

 ./waf --enable-sudo configure

To start over a configuration from scratch, type:

 ./waf distclean

Or if you get stuck and all else fails:

 rm -rf build

followed by changing back into ns-3-allinone and doing:

 ./build.py

will basically reset your build state.

To see all waf options:

 ./waf --help

Validating

ns-3 has unit tests that can be run to verify the installation:

 ./test.py

which should produce output like:

PASS: TestSuite histogram
PASS: TestSuite ns3-wifi-interference
PASS: TestSuite ns3-tcp-cwnd
PASS: TestSuite ns3-tcp-interoperability
PASS: TestSuite sample
...

Using Python

See this page.

Troubleshooting

See this page.

Obsolete information

Older versions of ns-3, prior to 3.15, supported using cygwin to run on Windows platform.

Windows

There are three basic options for Windows support:

  1. We provide HOWTO documents describing the process for installing Linux support and getting ns-3 running using two popular virtualization products: VirtualBox (HOWTO use VirtualBox to run simulations on Windows machines) and VMware (HOWTO use VMware to set up virtual networks (Windows)).
  2. There is an experimental project, Ns3 on Windows, using Visual Studio 2012. For support on Visual Studio 2010 see ns-3 on Visual Studio 2010
  3. Cygwin has been supported in the past: gcc 3.4.4 (debug only), gcc 4.3.2 (debug and optimized). Note, however, that there are limitations with regard to Python bindings, and that Real-time simulator, Emulated Net Device, Tap Bridge and Network simulation cradle are not supported.

An alternative Windows platform is MinGW. There are maintainers who attempt to keep a subset of ns-3 running on MinGW, but it is not "officially" suppported. This means that bugs filed against MinGW will be addressed as time permits.

Cygwin can sometimes be problematic due to the way it actually does its emulation, and sometimes interactions with other Windows software can cause problems. If you do use Cygwin or MinGW; and use Logitech products, we will save you quite a bit of heartburn right off the bat and encourage you to take a look at the MinGW FAQ.

Search for "Logitech" and read the FAQ entry, "why does make often crash creating a sh.exe.stackdump file when I try to compile my source code." Believe it or not, the ``Logitech Process Monitor`` insinuates itself into every DLL in the system when it is running. It can cause your Cygwin or MinGW DLLs to die in mysterious ways and often prevents debuggers from running. Beware of Logitech software when using Cygwin.